Impact of Alcohol Abuse on the Adaptive Immune System PMC

11 lutego 2021

Likewise, higher pathogen burden and decreased CD8 T cell immunity was observed in female mice administered ethanol at 15% (w/v) for 5 days and challenged with Listeria monocytogenes (Gurung, Young et al. 2009). Similar results have been seen in SIV infection of male nonhuman primates (Bagby, Stoltz et al. 2003, Molina, McNurlan et al. 2006, Poonia, Nelson et al. 2006, Marcondes, Watry et al. 2008). In addition, production of IL-10 in response to TLR2/6 stimulation was increased (Pruett, Zheng et al. 2004).

  • Molina and colleagues review research showing that alcohol impairs recovery from three types of physical trauma—burn, hemorrhagic shock, and traumatic brain injury—by affecting immune homeostasis.
  • Reduced IgE levels were also observed and may be related to the observed decrease in IgE synthesis regulators, IL-13 and CD40 ligand.
  • Molecular mechanisms of the dose-dependent effects of alcohol on the immune system and HPA regulation remain poorly understood due to a lack of systematic studies that examine the effect of multiple doses and different time courses.
  • In fact, alcohol use has been shown to increase the susceptibility of drinkers to both bacterial and viral infections, as well as advance the progression of several chronic viral infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C.
  • The alcohol-related decrease in peripheral B cells primarily seems to be mediated by a decrease in the frequency of the B-2 B cells.

Additionally, the role of alcohol-induced changes in the microbiome on immunity should be studied. Recent studies have shown that the microbiome modulates immunity in the gut, and in turn, immunity modulates the microbiome in the gut (Belkaid and Hand 2014). Only two studies have examined alcohol-induced changes in colonic (Mutlu, Gillevet et al. 2012) and fecal microbiomes (Chen, Yang et al. 2011), and both studies focused on individuals with AUD. Finally, an emerging informatics approach that can piece does alcohol weaken your immune system together these extensive data sets and build a network between the immune response elements, the HPA axis, and the time-course/dose response of ethanol while emphasizing in vivo studies from rodent, non human primate, and humans is urgently required. A second study by Joosten et al. also analyzed gene expression profiles in PBMCs isolated from 24 healthy male subjects who consumed 50mL of vodka with 200mL orange juice or only orange twice daily for 4 weeks during dinner (considered to be moderate).

Effects on B-Cell Development

Primates have a threelayer adrenal cortex with cortisol being the primary glucocorticoid produced in the zona fasciculata (Nguyen and Conley 2008), which is released in response to stress (O’Connor, O’Halloran et al. 2000). Corticosterone is the main glucocorticoid involved in the regulation of stress responses in rodents (Smith and Vale 2006). Ethanol consumption by weanling ICR (outbred) mice (adjusted to 6% in their drinking water) for 8 weeks also resulted in 75% fewer CD3+ T cells (Percival and Sims 2000). Likewise, male rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (8.7% v/v for up to 4 weeks) experienced a progressive loss of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (Boyadjieva, Dokur et al. 2002). Increased apoptosis of T and B lymphocytes isolated from the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes of female mice was observed following 16 hour culture with 0.4%-2% ethanol, concentrations 5 to 25 times the definition of intoxication (Slukvin and Jerrells 1995).

With such conditions, the body’s immune system attacks not only invaders but also its own cells. So if the liver’s immune system is unnecessarily activated due to heavy drinking, it can lead to liver disease. As described earlier for adult humans, alcohol can lead to increases in Ig levels during development, even if the numbers of mature B cells decrease. Thus, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy (12 mg/week for most of the pregnancy) increased IgE levels in the umbilical cord blood of the infants (Bjerke et al. 1994).

Impact of AUD on T Cells

Long-term alcohol misuse can weaken your immune system, making you more vulnerable to serious infections. It can also weaken your bones, placing you at greater risk of fracturing or breaking them. This information is based on the assumption that you have a normal tolerance to alcohol. While small amounts of alcohol may have a positive effect on heart health, large quantities increase the risk of high blood pressure and heart disease. Additionally, it can lead to stroke and arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat), among other things. Drinking too much alcohol kills healthy bacteria and impairs the immune system, which causes the body to have less resistance to infections.

In addition, most studies have been done in vitro using primary cells or cell lines in the presence of rather high, constant doses of ethanol. Similarly, most rodent studies to date have focused on acute/short-term binge models utilizing high concentration of ethanol (20% ethanol) as the sole source of fluid, a possible stressor in itself. Therefore, there is a pressing need for in depth studies that examine dose-dependent effects of chronic ethanol consumption on immunity in vivo to allow for the complex interactions between ethanol, its metabolites, HPA signaling, nutritional deficiencies, and the immune system.

How does alcohol change immunity? 3 truths about lockdown drinking

“These surprising findings indicate that some of the beneficial effects of moderate amounts of alcohol consumption may be manifested through boosting the body’s immune system. The monkeys classed as heavy drinkers showed diminished responses to the vaccine, compared with the monkeys that consumed sugar water. But the investigators were surprised to find that the monkeys deemed as moderate drinkers demonstrated an enhanced vaccine response. Its function is to detect and destroy harmful microorganisms, bacteria and viruses in the body. In the summer, just 5-15 minutes of rays on your hands, face, and arms 2-3 times a week usually is enough. The alcohol-related decrease in peripheral B cells primarily seems to be mediated by a decrease in the frequency of the B-2 B cells.

  • One study found that people who got less than 7 hours of sleep were nearly three times more likely to develop a cold compared with those who got 8 or more hours of sleep.
  • Studies both in humans and in animal models determined that chronic alcohol abuse reduces the number of peripheral T cells, disrupts the balance between different T-cell types, influences T-cell activation, impairs T-cell functioning, and promotes T-cell apoptosis.
  • Alcohol acts on this molecule (i.e., decreases phosphorylation of I B), thereby allowing I B to attach to NF- B, interfering with its activation of cytokine expression (Mandrekar et al. 1999).
  • Rodent studies offer several advantages such as availability of transgenic models that can facilitate mechanistic studies.
  • The studies found that when animals consumed ethanol before BCG vaccination, they were not protected against a subsequent pulmonary challenge with M.
  • — Some research suggests no amount of alcohol is good for you, while other studies say moderate drinking may actually boost immune function more than teetotalling.
  • Alcohol does affect your ability to stay healthy, but that’s also dependent on how much you’re drinking.

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